Wednesday, February 17, 2010

Lambert's cosine law

Optics에서, Lambert's law ( Lambert's cosine law )는 "Lambertian" 표면에서 관찰된 radiant intensity는 관찰자의 시선과 surface normal간의 각 θ의 cosine에 정비례하는 것을 설명한다. 이 law는 cosine emission law 또는 Lambert's emission law로도 알려져 있다. 이것은 Johann Heinrich Lambert의 이름을 따서 지어 졌으며 1760년에 출면된 Photometria에서 설명되어 있다.

Lambert's cosine law의 중요한 결과는 어떤 표면이 어떤 angle에서도 볼 수 있을 때, 그것은 동일한 명백한 radiance를 가지고 있다. 예를 들어, 사람의 눈에 대해서, 그것은 명백히 동일한 밝기를 가지고 있다. 주어진 영역에서 emit된 power는 emission angle의 cosine에 의해서 감소되지만, 그 량만큼 관찰된 영역의 크기가 줄어든다. 따라서, 그것은 radiance는 동일하다. 예를 들어, 가시 영역의 spectrum에서, 태양은 Lambertian radiator가 아니다; 그것의 밝기는 가운데서 최고이며, limb darkening의 적절한 예가 될 수 있다. 반면, black body는 완벽한 Lambertian radiator이다.

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